BentomixTM additives are natural, non-toxic, environmental-friend substances manufactured from a natural Jordanian zeolite “Phillipsite”. These additives are consisted of hydrated Aluminum silicate with other essential trace elements such as Fe++, Mg++ and Mn++.
1.1 Historical review for Natural Zeolite
In 1756, a Swedish mineralogist called Freiherr Axel Fredrick Cronstedt, collected a suite of well-formed crystals from the Svappavari Copper Mine, Lappmark, Sweden (Mumpton, 1978).
Because the mineral exhibited intumescence when heated in blowpipe flame, he called the mineral “Zeolite” which means in Greek “to boil” and “stone” (Breck, 1974).
Geologists and mineralogists soon recognized Zeolite as an abundant mineral in basalt cavities. Later on, more than 1000 occurrences of Zeolite minerals were reported from sedimentary rocks of volcanic origin in more than forty countries.
Today, efforts are being made to utilize natural Zeolites as well as to develop new applications that take advantage of the low mining costs of natural Zeolites (Mumpton, 1978).
1.2 Definitions and Chemical Framework
Zeolite is an alumino-silicate, whose framework structure of (Si, Al)O4 tetrahedra contains pores filled with water molecules and exchangeable cations. Zeolite boils at about 200 °C, giving off water, which is readily readsorbed at room temperature (Gottardi, 1978). Zeolites are formed by bubbles of fluids in the parent magma, and the zeolite crystals grow as a result of the chemical action of these fluids on the magma (Barrer, 1978).
Zeolites have a rigid 3-dimentional crystalline structure consisting of a network of interconnected tunnels and cages. The pore and channel sizes are nearly uniform allowing the crystal to host molecules and positively charged ions of appropriate molecular size that fit into the pores and act as a “molecular sieve” (Jabr, 2004).
Zeolites are classified, based on the crystal structure, into groups having the same units but which are linked to form different frameworks (Gottardi, 1978). The bulk composition of Zeolites tend to correlate with those of the parent rock; more aluminous Zeolites are associated with rocks deficient in silica and more siliceous Zeolite with rocks high in silica (Barrer, 1978).
Zeolite is stable under normal conditions and up to 200 °C when it begins to boil. It can undergo extraordinary high temperatures before being melted at 1000 °C.
Zeolite doesn’t evaporate and is not soluble in water.
1.3 Dominant Mineral Discovery and Work in Jordan
Natural Zeolite “phillipsite” is a widely occurring material in the volcanic tuffs of the northeastern basaltic plateau in Jordan.
Phillipsite is the most dominant zeolitic tuff, in Jordan and a common constituent of many sedimentary Zeolitic tuff deposits.
Phillipsite deposits contain predominantly Potassium and Calcium cations, in addition to other essential trace elements such as Fe++, Mg++ and Mn++(Dwairi, 1993).
Phillipsite has a common characteristic of mottled or etched due to potential dissolution in response to changing pore-water composition and occurs as stout prisms and stubby laths 3-30 µm in length and 0.3-3 µm in thickness (Mumpton and Ormsby, 1978).
Phillipsite deposits are located in Jaban Aritain I and II in Jordan (360 351 East), approximately 3.5 Km south Mafraq-Baghdad road and 120 Km northeast Amman (Reshiedat, 1991).
1.4 Uses of Zeolite
Zeolites are used as a slow release fertilizers and soil conditioners, as Ammonia and heavy metal removal in wastewater treatment, as livestock feed additives and odor control in animal husbandry, in the separation of oxygen and nitrogen from air, as reforming petroleum catalysts, and as acid-resistant adsorbent in gas drying and purification (Mumpton, 1978).
1.5 Applications of Zeolite in Animal Husbandry
The application of Zeolite overseas in animal husbandry has resulted in increasing feed efficiency, improving production rates and rumen microbial activity, and decreasing mortality rates.
Zeolite was effective in eliminating poisonous effects of toxicants (Aflatoxins and Acidosis), therefore, reducing need for antibiotics and veterinary medicines.
Moreover, it was approved that Zeolite has the potential to prevent ammonia related health problems and extending bedding life by keeping bedding dryer for animals due to its ability for absorbing ammonia and related odorous gases and trapping them into its crystalline structure (Mumpton, 1978).
2. Certified Researches
2.1 Effect of Feeding Clinoptilolite to Cows* Bergero D., (1997) Universita di Torino, Via Nizza, Italy
Zeolite has beneficial effects on the ammonium levels in rumen fluid and blood serum levels.
Zeolites and ammonium play important roles in nitrogen and protein supply in the rumen. The ammonium level in rumen fluid is an indicator of rumen nitrogen metabolism with particular reference to ruminal protein degradation.
Reduction in the cost of cow diets can be made by using urea instead of protein in well-balanced diets. Urea can be effectively used by ruminal bacteria to build body protein (that is afterwards digested and used by the cow as a source of amino acids). A diet with a high percentage of soluble nitrogen can release large amounts of ammonium in the rumen fluid, especially in the ammonium peak, during the initial post-prandial time.
The use of urea or other sources of non-protein nitrogen (NPN) in dairy cows, such as the use of diets containing high percentages of soluble protein, could cause an increase in rumen pH and ammonium concentration and a subsequent increase in the concentration of ammonium in blood serum. Risks of toxicity can be linked to the increase in both the pH of the rumen and the ammonium levels in blood serum.
Natural Zeolites have the ability retain excess (adsorb) ammonium in the rumen and to subsequently release this cation when the rumen concentration lowers. The zeolite lowers the risk of toxicity by preventing both a pH increase and an increase of ammonium in the blood serum. The ammonium level is maintained constant (buffered) with beneficial effects on the metabolism of ruminal bacteria.
Urea level in milk decreases at 5 hours post-prandial time.
Quote Mumpton and Fisherman (1977): 1% zeolite added to rations resulted in a pH decrease in the rumen, probably due to lower ammonium content and to an increase in volatile fatty acid production.
Quote Garcia-Lopez et al. (1988): 2 wt% zeolite added to diary cow feed concentrate increased the milk fat percentage and the acid/base balance.
* Important Note: Clinoptilolite forms as an alteration of phillipsite in deep-sea sediments. This fact would suggest that research conducted on Clinoptilolite in animal feeding may be applicable to phillipsite (http://mineral.galleries.com:/minerals/silicate/clinoptic/clinopti.htm). The ability to bind positively charged cations, particularly ammonia, is a property of zeolites in general, so research concerning cation binding by zeolites should be applicable to the GTG phillipsite product.
2.2 Effect of Clinoptilolite on Lactating Dairy Cows Fed a Diet Containing Urea as a Source of Protein. Hemken, R. W. et al. (1983) Department of Animal Sciences, University of Kentucky.
Faecal pH was highest for the urea + clinoptilolite diet (5.64). Faecal starch followed the same trend as faecal pH. A high faecal pH is desirable and can indicate improved energy utilization. Other studies have shown that as faecal pH increases, faecal starch decreases. Lower faecal starch indicates more complete digestion of dietary starch.
The effects of faecal starch and faecal pH suggest an effect similar to that noted for limestone and magnesium oxide.
2.3 Influence of Zeolite on Growth and Metabolism in the Ruminant. Sweeney T. F. et al. (1980) Ph. D. Dissertation, University of Kentucky.
Determined clinoptilolite could be used to conserve free ammonia for rumen microbial fermentation and thereby improve nutrient utilization by ruminant animals.
Demonstrated improved nitrogen, organic matter, and acid-detergent fiber digestibility when 5% clinoptilolite was added to a high-solubility protein diet of growing steers and heifers.
2.4 Effect of Dietary Clinoptilolite on Digestion and Rumen Fermentation in Steers. Sweeney T. F. et al. (1983) Pennsylvania State University
The ability of zeolites to release ammonium ions gradually is beneficial for microbial synthesis in the rumen, especially in diets containing a high level of non-protein nitrogen.
Carried out tests to determine if 5% dietary zeolite (<50 mesh), by nature of its affinity for water and osmotically active cations, affects the rate of passage of liquid digests from the rumen.
Zeolite added to a high N-solubility (HNS) diet resulted in increases in both apparent protein and organic matter digestion.
The zeolite had an affect on acid-detergent fiber (a major component of organic-matter) digestion, increasing fiber digestibility possibly due to the maintenance of suitable levels of NH3 for enhanced microbial growth in the rumen.
Faecal dry matter was increased by the addition of clinoptilolite to the diet. The increased faecal dry matter percentage improves environmental conditions in highly confined feedlot situations. Decreases in moisture available for microbial growth in faeces contributes to improved animal health through cleaner air and reduced disease communication.
Blood urea-N (BUN) was reduced when clinoptilolite was added to the high HNS diet.
Zeolite has affinity for cations other than NH4+ and it was noted blood K was reduced by the presence of zeolite in the diets.
It is well documented that feeding high roughage diets to ruminants is not commonly associated with high incidences of diarrhea.
Organic-matter digestibility (3.5% - 4.5%) was increased by the addition of clinoptilolite to the diet. This response may be related to a physical and/or chemical interactions between clinoptilolite, rumen microbes and forage fiber particles.
Improved digestion and metabolism. Improved fiber digestion and rumen fermentation.
Zeolites promoted an increase rumen acetate production (the precursor of milk fat); feed additive for lactating diary cattle.
2.5 Sorption Characteristics of Natural Zeolite (Clinoptilolite) in Biological Material in Vitro. Vrzgula, L. and Seidel, H. (1989)
• The sorption by clinoptilolite of arsenic, cadmium, and lead ion from the rumen and abomasums juice was investigated in laboratory conditions.
• Zeolite was found to sorb 91% of lead and 45% of cadmium from rumen fluid in 24 hours. The sorption effectiveness was even higher from abomasums juice where zeolite sorbed 98% lead in 24 hours.
Kondo et al. (1969)
• Reported that clinoptilolite added to the feed of young calves improved growth rate decreased the incidence of diarrhea (cited by Mumpton and Fishman, 1977).
2.6 Effect of Zeolite on Homo-Immuno Parameters in Newborn Calves. Nik-Khan A., (2002) Faculty of Agriculture, Tehran University, Iran, Zeolite ’02.
Neonatal calves are born with no immunoglobulins in blood sgatam and rely on immunoglobulin from colostrums through passive immunity transfer.
Male and female Holstein calves were fed maternal colostrums plus zeolite (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 grams per kg of bodyweight per day).
1 gram clinoptilolite per kg of body weight per day had the best effects on increasing serum immunoglobulins, vitamin A adsorption, average daily weight gain, reduction of faecal score and reduction of morbidity and mortality.
2.7 Influence of Zeolite on Calves in the Postnatal Period. Vrzgula L., (1988) Veterinary University, Czechoslovakia; Jacobi. U. Animal Production and Veterinary Medicine, Humboldt University, Germany.
Health problems such as alimentary diarrhea can cause the death of calves up to the second week of life. Treatment with antibiotics is not always effective.
Zeolite (clinoptilolite) was added (1gram per kg of body weight at every feed) to the colostrums of newly born claves up to the 15 th day of life.
The zeolite decreased the occurrence of both diarrhea of alimentary origin and an associated respiratory syndrome in comparison to the control. This treatment offers a possibility to decrease the use of expensive antibiotics.
The zeolite fed calves had a statistically significant increase in the concentration of immunoglobulins in the blood serum.
The zeolite improved the absorption of immunoglobulins, total proteins and some microelements, especially iron and copper.
Mechanisms for the positive protective effect of zeolite on the incidence and course of diarrhea in the alimentary canal: increase in adherency of enteropathogenic E.coli; alteration of metabolic acidosis through effects on osmotic pressure in the lumen of intestines.
2.8 Effect of Feeding Zeolite to Poultry
Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, Greece
• The addition of natural zeolites (2% by weight of ration) and flaxseed (3% to
10% by weight) to the rations of broiler chickens resulted in less body fat
deposition relative to controls.
Animal Science Research Institute, Poultry Research Department, Iran
• Adding 2.5% zeolite to the diet of 900 broiler chickens improved daily weight gain (58.53grams vs 55.53 grams), the feed intake and the production index.
Mortality decreased significantly.
2.9 Effect of Feeding Zeolite to Swine
Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, Greece
• Research used small sample sizes (three groups of nine sows).
• The addition of a specific amount of natural zeolite to the diet of sows improved
their reproductive performance of sows and the growth rates of their piglets.
• The diet of sows were randomly allocated one of three treatments, A (0% zeolite), B (4% zeolite) and C (9% zeolite). In groups B and C the litter size at birth and at weaning were better than those of group A. The mortality rate in groups B and C were lower than group A. In group C, the inclusion of high amounts of zeolite constrained the growth rate of piglets.
• This research indicates the importance of understanding the correct percentage of zeolite to add to an animals’ diet.
2.10 Effect of Zeolite in binding Mycotoxins
Surfactant Modified Zeolites. New Efficient Adsorbents for Mycotoxins.
Tomasevic-Canovic, M. et al. (2002), Belgrade, Yugoslavia and College of
Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri.
Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by certain fungi in a number of agricultural products. Mycotoxins contamination may affect as much a 25% of the world’s food crops.
The prevention of mycotoxicosis in livestock can be achieved by the inclusion of mineral adsorbents to bind mycotoxins, thereby decreasing their bioavailability.
Zeolites effectively absorb mycotoxins containing polar groups, such as aflatoxins.
Organic modification with amines (surfactant) enables the zeolite to adsorb less polar mycotoxins.
Prevention of Aflatoxicosis in Farm animals by Means of Hydrated Sodium Calcium Aluminosilicate Addition to Feedstuffs: a Review
Ramos, A. J. and Hernandez E. (1997), Spain.
Mycotoxins are a wide group of fungal toxins that have been associated with severe toxic effects (mycotoxicosis) in man and animals. Aflatoxins are the most dangerous of these secondary metabolites.
There is no definitive way to achieve complete detoxification of food and feed contaminated with mycotoxins.
Some natural zeolites have a high affinity to absorb aflatoxins, thereby having a protective effect against the development of aflatoxicosis in farm animals.
Paper postulates a mechanism for the protective effect against aflatoxicosis generated by a sorbent compound obtained by from a natural zeolite.
Minerals for Animal Feed, in a Stable Market. Loughbrough R., (1993) Assistant Editor, Industrial Minerals
Zeolites can be used as binding agents in animal feeds.
Zeolite’s primary values are as growth promoters and carriers of nutrients.
As growth promoters zeolites appear to act as a buffer in the animals digestive system, storing nitrogen in the form of ammonium and releasing it gradually by ion exchange with sodium and potassium. The animal receives greater benefit from the same quantity of feed.
The ammonium absorbing characteristics result in drier faeces and an improved atmosphere in the stables.
2.11 Medicinal, Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Applications of zeolite; Anticancer, Antibacterial, Antifungal.
K. Pavelic’, Division of Molecular Medicine, Ruder Boskovic Institute, Croatia.
• Clinoptilolite was ground to an average particle size of 2.9 microns and tested on mice, rats and dogs.
• Toxicology studies demonstrated the treatment does not have negative effects.
• The growth of human tumor cell lines was significantly inhibited with the does of 50 mg/ml.
• Clinoptilolite treatment of mice and dogs suffering a variety of tumor types led to an improvement in overall health status, prolongation of life-span, and decrease in tumor size.
• Local application of zeolite to skin cancers of dogs effectively reduced tumor formation and growth.
• Clinoptilolite induced activation of macrophages.
• Clinoptilolite induces expression of tumor suppressor proteins and blocks cell growth in several cancer cell lines.
• Clinoptilolite might affect cancer growth by attenuating survival signals and inducing tumor suppressor genes in treat cells. They propose an immunostimulatory mechanism.
Antibacterial, Antifungal. Protective Applications Against Microorganisms: Bacteria, Fungi and Fungal Mycotoxins (swine feed). Mycotoxins. M. Tomasevic-Canovic et al, Belgrade, Yugoslavia and college of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri.
• Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by certain fungi in a number of agricultural products. Mycotoxins contamination may affect as much a 25% of the world’s food crops.
• The prevention of mycotoxicosis in livestock can be achieved by the inclusion of
mineral adsorbents to bind mycotoxins, thereby decreasing their bioavailability.
• Zeolites effectively absorb mycotoxins containing polar groups, such as aflatoxins.
• Organic modification with amines (surfactant) enables the zeolite to adsorb less polar mycotoxins.
N. Bogdanchikova et al, Mexico
• Silver-exchanged forms of zeolite exhibit antibacterial activity.
• Purified natural Cuban clinoptilolite is approved and certified as an external and internal medicine by the Cuban Ministry of Public Health.
V. Petranovskii et al, Mexico
• Investigated the biological properties of copper and silver-modified zeolite as barriers against fungal attack.
2.12 Diagnostics, Prophylactics and Healing by Clinoptilolite.
N. Izmirova et al, Sofia University, Sofia, Bulgaria.
• Clinoptilolite has no carcinogenic effect on laboratory animals.
• Reduced tumor formation in mice.
• Experimentally inflicted wounds treated with zeolite heal quickly.
• Clinoptilolite was effective for the decrease and relief of acidity in the stomach.
2.13 Interaction of Drugs and Zeolite
T. Farias et al, University of Havana, Cuba.
• Results shows that some drugs and zeolitic materials can be simultaneously administered without any loss of individual pharmaceutical effects.
3. Applications of BENTOMIXTM
Due to its Zeolitic-based superb characteristics and cost saving features, BENTOMIXTM is widely used by producers of broilers, commercial eggs, beef, dairy cattle and sheep.
Major applications of BENTOMIXTM in feedlot and stockfeed can be listed into the following categories:
• Cost Effective - Feed Additive
o Increased Feed Efficiency.
o Improved Rumen Microbial Activity.
o Toxicity Prevention (Aflatoxins and Acidosis).
• Feedlot Manures and Odor Control
o Drier, less odorous feedlot wastes.
o Manure Richer in Nutrients.
o Reduced Necessity for Antibiotics.
3.1 Cost Effective Feed Additive
3.1.1 Increased Feed Efficiency
Positive effect of combined feed with zeolite on digestibility of nutrients; balance of nitrogen, calcium and phosphorous, and average daily increase of weight of heifers has been noticed (Kirolove et al., 1995).
Kado et al. (1969) found that adding zeolite to the feed of young calves, and chicken (Onagi, 1966) improved growth rate of young calves by stimulating appetite and decreased incidence of diarrhea and soft feces, and increased feed efficiency of chickens.
As poultry feed additive, zeolite has many benefits. For these reasons, it is extensively used in European countries and Japan. Among these benefits are:
Improved food intake efficiency and layers.
Where feed is delivered through nozzles, Zeolite prevents “bridging” at the feed nozzle.
Increase in eggshell thickness.
Reduction in hen house odor.
decreasing mortality rates.
Internal research study shows that BENTOMIXTM was effective in increasing the final weight of broilers and number of delivered eggs:
Broilers fed (30 kg) BENTOMIXTM per ton of feed showed improved final weight by 2.1% and caused feed reduction of about 1.7% compared to the control fed with ration free of BENTOMIXTM during 46 days feed period. On the other hand, addition of BENTOMIXTM into the broilers ration did not show a notable effect on the ratio of broilers mortality.
Layers fed with (20 kg) BENTOMIXTM added to a ton of feed, started on week 39, resulted in an increment of about 9.9 eggs over the control treatment within 40 week trial, while an extra 9 weeks caused about 1.2 extra eggs gain.
The application of zeolite overseas has resulted in improved feed conversion and weight gains.
During the eighties researchers using zeolite in the range of 2.5% to 4% of a ration showed weight gains of up to 5% over the ‘control’ groups and feed reductions of between 3% and 5%. Moreover, in one overseas trial (6,000 steers) the zeolite fed animals gained 143 grams/day more than the control group.
This represented over 40 kg extra weight during the 280 days feed period. (Available from: http://www.zeolite.com.au/products/nutrition2.html).
3.1.2 Improved Rumen Microbial Activity
Ruminant animals constantly deal with the metabolic effects of ammonia, which is a product of protein breakdown in the rumen.
Maximizing the conversion of ammonia into microbial protein, especially fiber digestion bacteria, provides an economic advantage to farmers.
In addition, the non-protein nitrogen and readily degradable protein sources which result in large releases of ammonia in the rumen are very inexpensive sources of protein for ruminant animals.
As a result, the use of BENTOMIXTM is economically beneficial.
Furthermore, It was found by (White and Ohlrogge, 1974) that up to 15% of ammonia in the rumen could be taken up by zeolite.
Thus the gradual release of ammonia allowed rumen microorganisms to synthesize cellular protein, which lead to decrease the loss of nitrogen in the rumen.
3.1.3 Toxicity Prevention
Zeolite can effectively binds aflatoxins and protects livestock from their ill effects.
This can be very important in farm-based feedlots where grain storage may not be perfect.
Research study data shows BENTOMIXTM to be effective and more than offsets the detrimental effects of feeding aflatoxin contaminated feed:
Broilers fed (30 kg) of BENTOMIXTM per ton of finished feed containing 120 ppm of aflatoxin showed improved feed conversion by 6.0 points and the body weight by 5.3 points versus the 120 ppm aflatoxin control, while broilers had a higher body weight by 3.7 points than the broilers fed rations containing no BENTOMIXTM and no aflatoxin. This result is statistically significant at 0.05 level of confidence.
Moreover, zeolite is commonly used in dairy cow rations to reduce the impact of myco-toxins in the feed, and its also effective for ameliorating the negative impact of mold produced toxins in animal feeds.
Furthermore, the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of zeolite enables effective rumen buffering (pH) which can reduce the acidosis (grain poisoning) effects of excessive grain intake especially during the introductory phase of feedlot rations.
3.2 Feedlot Manures and Odor Control
One of the major by-products of the feedlot industry is animal waste in the form of manures, which can attract flies and produce odors.
3.2.1 Drier, less odorous feedlot wastes
BENTOMIXTM has a twofold effect on reducing odor and stall wetness by trapping moisture and ammonia gas into its crystalline structure. By being porous it:
• Absorbs gases (including Ammonia and Hydrogen Sulphide) as they are evolved from urine and manure breakdown in the pens.
• Absorbs water that results in a drier manure pad. Industry research shows that odour increases with humidity and by maintaining a drier pad, then feedlot odour is significantly reduced.
3.2.2 Manure richer in nutrient
The zeolite containing manure is easier to dispose of since it is drier, richer in nutrients (N, P, K and trace elements) and lower in sodium.
Additionally, the nutrients in zeolite containing manure are more available to plants and result in increased plant growth by increasing water retention, holding nutrients in the root growth zone, increasing the cation exchange capacity (CEC) and pH buffering of the soil, and enhanced infiltration and aeration of soil. Therefore, The farm-feedlot can obtain these benefits as a by-product of the feedlot operation.
Another striking benefit could be gained due to the additive of zeolite into the compost or dry stacked manure after it is turned or after the addition of a new layer of manure; adding a thin layer of BENTOMIXTM in the area of the barn receiving the fresh manure will get the following benefits:
Converts organically bound nitrogen that is not plant accessible to ammonium hydroxide, ammonium nitrate, and ammonia that are plant accessible.
Reduces or eliminates the odor.
Dries the manure.
Reduces the flies.
Kills the pathogens and weed seeds.
3.2.3 Reduced Necessity for Antibiotics
The use of BENTOMIXTM in animal feed increases gain and production and reduces or eliminates the need for antibiotics.
In Europe where zeolite is commonly fed, antibiotics are not used.
4. Production Process
BENTOMIXTM additives are manufactured by Green Technology Group Jordan (GTGJ) using the most powerful ways and modern techniques, under highly strict controlled conditions.
Production process can be subdivided into four major stages:
Mining: Phillipsite deposits are mined in a depth of (30m) beneath earth surface.
Crushing: Phillipsite deposits then are crushed into fine grains of dead correct (750 micron) size.
Washing: Phillipsite fine-grains are washed with fresh water in order to eliminate their content of sodium residuals.
Drying: Phillipsite purified fine-grains are dried under (100 ºC) using special enclosed burners (driers) in order to make their water content less than (6%).
5. Production in Process Control
Due to our seek to enhance the quality of our products, strict procedures were made by our qualified Quality Control engineers.
These Q.C procedures are held to ensure that:
Deposits are mined in a depth not less than (30m) and contains not less than (60%) of pure Zeolitic tuffs.
Deposits are crushed into a definite size of (750 micron).
EC is measured after each washing process in order to ensure that EC value does not exceed (2000 µS/cm).
Water content is analyzed to be sure that the total water content doesn’t exceed (6%).
6. Packaging material specifications
BENTOMIXTM additive can be provided into the following forms:
Bagged Product: (25 kg or 50 kg) polypropylene or polyethylene bags.
7. Health Care Precautions
Acute-Swallowed: Material is biologically inert. It is however highly absorbent and could have a dehydrating effect if large amounts are ingested rapidly.
Acute-Eye: May cause mechanical irritation in contact with the eyes, which can result in redness, itching lachrymation.
Acute-Skin: May cause mechanical irritation in contact with the skin.
Acute-Inhaled: Inhalation of dust may cause irritation the mucous membrane and upper airways. Symptoms can include sneezing, coughing and breathing difficulties.
Chronic: No long term health effects are known for this product when used as intended and as directed, however product is a fine dust and lung injury (silicosis) could be possible from excessive inhalation over an extended period.
7.1 First aid
Swallowed: Immediately wash out mouth with water, and then give plenty of water to drink.
If irritation develops seek medical attention.
Eye: If contact with the eye(s) occurs, wash with copious amounts of water for approximately 15 minutes holding eyelids open.
Take care not to rinse contaminated water into the non-effected eye. If irritation develops seek medical attention.
Skin: Remote all contaminated clothing. Wash gently and thoroughly with water non-abrasive soap.
Ensure contaminated clothing is washed before re-use or discard. If irritation develops seek medical attention.
Inhaled: Remove the source of contamination or move the victim to fresh air.
Have victim blow nose to remove excess dust.
Ensure airways are clear and have a qualified person give oxygen through a facemask if breathing is difficult.
If irritation develops seek medical attention.
7.2 Personal protection
Gloves: Recommended in situations where abrasion from product may occur.
Eye: Use protection as appropriate for the task at hand.
Other: Use protective clothing as appropriate for the work environment.
7.3 Spill procedures and waste disposal method
If material is spilled, just clean up and recover as suitable.
DON’T BE AFRAID, NO TOXIC EFFECTS.
This material is totally safe and has no hazardous side effects.
Waste Disposal method: Spills on the ground should be cleaned up in a manner, which does not generate dust.
Dispose of in a landfill or distribute thinly over any suitable cultivable land.
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Academic Press, Inc. London Ltd., 1978.
2. Bergero, D. et al. Effect of Natural Clinoptilolite or Phillipsite in the Feeding of Lactating Dairy Cows.
In Kirov G., Filizova L., Petrov O. (eds) Natural Zeolites – Sofia ’95, pp. 67 – 72., 1997.
3. Breck, D. W., Zeolite Molecular Sieves. By John wiley & sons, Inc., 1974.
4. Dwairi, I. M., Removal of ammonium from water using phillipsite tuff from northeastern Jordan: An Evaluation Study.
In: Mu'tah Lil-Buhooth Wa Al-Dirasat (series B: Natural and applied Sciences Series) a Refereed and Indexed Journal Published by the deanship of Science Research and Graduate Studies, Mu'tah University, Vol.8, Number 4, pp.8, Dec. 1993.
5. Garcia-Lopez, R. A. et al. The Utilisation of Zeolite by Dairy Cows; The Effect on Milk Composition.
Cuban J. Agric. Sci., 22 (1), pp. 22 – 22., 1988.
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7. Hemken, R. W. et al. Effect of Clinoptilolite on Lactating Dairy Cows Fed a Diet Containing Urea as a Source of Protein.
In Pond W. G. and Mumpton F. A. (eds) Zeo-Agriculture: Use of Natural Zeolite in Agriculture and Aquaculture, pp. 171 – 176., 1983.
8. Jabr, M. R., The Use of Zeolitic tuff for Reducing Salinity Caused by Irrigation of Croton (Codiaeum Variegatum Blume) with Treated Wastewater.
M.Sc. Thesis, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan., 2004.
9. Mumpton, F. A., Natural Zeolites: A New Industrial Mineral Commodity, in: Natural Zeolites: Occurance, Properties, Use, Sand, L. B. and Mumpton, F. B. eds., Pergamon Press, Elmsford, New York, pp.3-31, 1978.
10. Mumpton, F. A. and Fisherman, P. H. The Application of Natural Zeolites in Animal Science and Agriculture. J. Anim. Sci., 45. pp. 1188 –1203., 1977.
11. Mumpton, F. A. and Ormsby, W. C., Morphology of Zeolites in Sedimentary Rocks by Scanning Electron Microscopy, in: Natural Zeolites: Occurance, Properties, Use, Sand, L. B. and Mumpton, F. B. eds., Pergamon Press, Elmsford, New York, pp.3-31, 1978.
12. Nik-Khan, A. and Sadeghi A. A. Natural Clinoptilolite-Tuff Effects on Health Homo-Immuno Parameters in Newborn Calves, Zeolite ’02, 6 th International Conference, Occurrence, Properties and Utilisation of Natural Zeolites, pp. 253., 2002.
13. Kirilove, M. P., Kalinin, V. V., Fantin, V. M. and Sadykov, S. M., Metabolism and reproductive feature of replacement heifers under feeding of combined fodder with zeolites. Seskokhoziajstrennaya biologiya. Seriya Biologiya Zhivotnykh (Russian Federation). No.2, 77-81, 1995.
14. Kodo, K., Seiji, F., Fumino, S., Teiki, T., Hideo, M., Bunsaku, W. and Tonosuke, K., Effect of zeolites on calve growth. Chikusan no Kenikyu. 23:987, 1969.
15. Loughbrough R., Minerals for Animal Feed, in a Stable Market. Industrial Minerals, March 1993, pp. 19 –33., 1993.
16. Onagi, T. Treating experiments of chicken droppings with zeolite-tuff powder. 2. Experimental use of zeolite-tuffs as dietary supplements for chickens. Rep. Yamagata Stock Raising Inst. 7-18, 1966.
17. Ramos, A. J. and Hernandez E. Prevention of Aflatoxicosis in Farm animals by Means of Hydrated Sodium Calcium Aluminosilicate Addition to Feedstuffs: a Review. Animal Feed Science and Technology, Vol. 65 (1- 4), pp. 197 – 206., 1997.
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A certificated chemical and mineral analysis derived from the laboratories of Yarmouk University.
A certificated radioactive analysis derived from Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources in Jordan certified that ZEOFEEDTM has no harmful radioactivity.
Certificate No. 21CFR582.2729 from U.S. Food & Drug Administration certified that Zeolite has been used as the keeping material of mycotoxin, the increasing material of feed and anticaking agent in USA.
Certificate No. 70/524/EEC dated on 16 June 1999 from ‘The Commission of The European Communities’ certified that Zeolite has been included to tha feed additive material list since 1999 as binder, anticaking agent and coagulant.
EC Regulation No. 2696/2000 included that registration tests involved confirming zeolite had no detrimental effects on poultry, pigs, lamb and cattle. The Registration does not include any claims regarding growth or health benefits.
Certificate of Origin
Free sale Certificate